Month: April 2022

what does antitrust law require companies to do

What do law students use?

Most law students use either Lexis or Westlaw as research tools during law school. Several print and electronic media concentrate primarily on legal news. For those students with backgrounds in publishing or journalism, jobs with legal publishers as well as print or electronic media might also provide law-related employment.

What is a judicial clerk?

Judicial clerks are a subset of government lawyers, but warrant separate mention. Depending on how a state’s court system is structured, judicial clerkships are available at both the federal and state levels. Judicial clerks research and draft memoranda and opinions for judges.

What are the agencies that serve in the military?

Department of Justice, the Office of Homeland Security, the Security Exchange Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Patent and Trademark Office, and just about every other government agency that you can name. Attorneys also serve in all branches of the military.

What is private practice?

Private Practice. Some work as solo practitioners, others in small or boutique law firms. Many work in firms that have several hundred lawyers in cities around the world. Lawyers usually join firms as associates and work toward becoming partners.

What branch of government does an attorney serve in?

Attorneys also serve in all branches of the military. Each military branch has its own Judge Advocate General’s Corps (JAG). State and local governments include attorneys who work as prosecutors in District Attorney’s offices and in some jurisdictions, Public Defenders’ offices, Attorneys General offices, state agencies, commissions and boards. …

What are the government agencies that hire lawyers?

Most federal government agencies have legal counsel. These agencies include the U.S. Department of Justice, the Office of Homeland Security, the Security Exchange Commission,

What can I do with a law degree?

Law school graduates may work in bank trust departments, brokerage firms, insurance companies, development offices for preparatory schools, hospitals and universities. Often an undergraduate major in accounting or finance would be helpful as well as tax law classes, in addition to a legal education.

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What are the different types of law degrees?

Depending on your end goal, there are different types of law degrees you can consider, including: 1 Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies (BSLS) 2 Master degree options 3 Juris Doctor (J.D.) 4 Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.)

What is a BSLS?

Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies (BSLS) While you won’t be able to practice law without additional education, a BSLS can still help you get hired for a job in the legal field. This career can be your end goal or you may want to work in the field using your degree while you decide on the next program to apply to.

How much does a probation officer make?

1. Probation officer. National average salary: $48,679 per year . Primary duties: A probation officer works closely with individuals on probation to monitor their progress, make sure they don’t commit new crimes and connect them with helpful resources and rehabilitation programs. 2.

Is a law degree possible in 2021?

There are several career options for those who want to work in the legal field. With hard work, a law degree is possible and can lead to a sustainable career. In this article, we’ll discuss different law degrees, how to obtain them and what they can do for your career.

What is a masters in legal studies?

Master of Legal Studies (MLS) An MLS is designed for people who want to work in the legal field in a larger capacity than a bachelor’s degree can provide, yet do not want to be a practicing attorney. This degree will provide you with legal knowledge so you can work in compliance, federal regulations or as a consultant.

How much does an attorney at law make?

Attorney-at-law. National average salary: $68,987 per year. Primary duties: An attorney-at-law is the general term for someone who is licensed to practice law, and they can work in several fields. For example, an attorney-at-law may be a real estate attorney or an estate planning attorney.

Can I practice law without a degree?

While you won’t be able to practice law without additional education, a BSLS can still help you get hired for a job in the legal field. This career can be your end goal or you may want to work in the field using your degree while you decide on the next program to apply to.

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How can I get ahead as a law student?

The best way to get ahead as a law student is by building connections, which is often best done by networking. Your university may run a law networking event where they invite barristers, solicitors and other people in the legal profession. It is a great idea to attend these events in order to meet new people, ask questions you may have …

What can I do to become a lawyer?

This can include anything from holding a position in the law society to serving as a course representative. These all equip you with transferable skills that will come in handy when you become a lawyer, such as communication, teamwork and leadership.

Why is law important?

Whilst at times the workload may be overwhelming, law is an incredible subject. It teaches you about society and how the law governs everyday life. It also teaches you how to think on your feet and produce cogent arguments.

What skills do lawyers need?

These all equip you with transferable skills that will come in handy when you become a lawyer, such as communication, teamwork and leadership.

Is law a hard degree?

At the same time, it is also a practical subject that teaches you how to draft client care letters, deliver presentations and develop business skills. Law is commonly thought of as a difficult degree, but many law students love it because of how it combines many academic disciplines.

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What should I know about English law?

Perhaps the really big thing to know about an English law degree is that there are subjects which (i) you have to study (ii) you expect you won’t enjoy. This is an unfortunate side-effect of the fact that law degrees are at heart vocational and so you study certain areas which are crucial to the smooth functioning of society but aren’t considered too glamorous. It’s worth noting that some people do come to university with a professed love for commercial law and that’s great, but it does seem to be the norm to start university dead set on being a human rights barrister.#N#However, because you have to learn these topics in significant depth you do find yourself getting far more interested than you ever plan to. What can seem like a fairly technical subject such as land registration is actually vitally important to individual people when you think about it — many cases on the topic end up with someone being evicted from their family home, or allowed to stay despite the aspiring purchaser having no idea that they had a legal interest in the house as it was not entered in the register.#N#There is a frame of mind to adopt here, and it’s absolutely central to ensuring that you enjoy studying law. Find the interesting element of something which doesn’t originally appeal to you — there will always be one, often the ‘human interest’ or political angle. Make as much of it as is possible as interesting to you as is possible. And resign yourself to the fact that you’ll just have to learn the rest!

Why do law students clock up library hours?

Law students get a reputation for clocking up the library hours because each week you need to learn what the law actually is and academics’ opinions of it from scratch, and neither of these will be particularly short.

What is sharp mind?

The ‘sharp mind’ you need for university study comes in different varieties, and each degree demands a particular mix of certain skills. Law requires both absolute command of the details of legislation and cases, and a wider view of how different areas interlock and what they (aim to) achieve. This is shown most clearly in the two main types of examination question. Problem questions require you to apply the law to very specific (and sometimes outright preposterous) factual patterns and explain why in this specific set of circumstances a piece of legislation or principle of law would/could be applied in a certain way.#N#You need to know the legislation and the case law, because although you may be given a copy of the legislation it wastes time if you’re using it to do anything other than check minor points. Equally if you don’t know part of the case law in an area that can lose you marks or narrow down the number of questions you could potentially answer. Essay questions require you to make a broad point using specific examples, so you need to have a whole arsenal of examples to hand.#N#Basically, you need to remember a lot of things! And you need to be prepared to sit down and learn cases, and at the very least the structure and key clauses of the relevant legislation so that you can find it in the statute book during the exam. It is absolutely normal to have legislation and case summaries stuck up round your wall during exam season (rent agreements permitting!). But because all this knowledge also needs to be grounded in the wider picture for the purposes of essay questions this isn’t just an exercise in memorising names, which makes the process a lot easier.#N#An Oxford examiners’ report commented a few years ago (in light of students forgetting the names of key cases) that if you have done the work properly then remembering case names should be no more difficult than learning the names of breakfast cereals. I may not know hundreds of breakfast cereals, but it’s true that you learn a lot of small details without thinking about it.

Is it easy to forget that some are actually quite simple and clear cut?

You are , after all, focusing on the more controversial and uncertain areas of law so it is easy to forget that some are actually quite simple and clear-cut. There also comes a week where you learn about liability for giving advice and accepting responsibility for it being correct.

Is criminal law a good subject?

Criminal law, for instance, makes a good first year subject because it is easy to get to grips with the ideas and it doesn’t overlap too much with any other area. It is just important to know that if you study Land law before Trusts/Equity, it is not a problem if you don’t fully understand what a trust is because that will come next. 3.

Is it normal to feel like you’re in the dark?

As you usually learn only a few topics at a time you may not understand one fully until you have covered the next one. It is absolutely normal to feel a little like you’re in the dark to begin with, although universities try to organise the courses so that the first year exams at least can stand on their own.

Is there a single Eureka moment?

There is no single ‘eureka!’ moment, but it does all come together eventually. Certain areas of law, particularly contract and tort, deal with different types of human action but are so similar in places that they often ‘run out’ just as the other one starts.

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What is uniform law?

Uniform laws. A compilation of laws sponsored by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and proposed to all state legislatures for their consideration and adoption. Some uniform laws are passed by a few states, others passed by all states, and some passed with minor changes. USC.

What is a code of law?

A version of a code which, in addition to the language of the law, contains references to law review articles, other relevant regulations and statutes, and summaries of relevant cases. The formal written statement by a defendant in a civil case that responds to a complaint. For the sake of argument.

Why is law school so challenging?

One of the reasons law school is so challenging is that lawyers talk differently. There are a whole host of words you’ll hear for the 1st time once you start law school. To make matters worse, some of your professors are so used to throwing around these words that they won’t slow down and explain what they mean.

What is an annotated code?

Annotated code. A version of a code which, in addition to the language of the law, contains references to law review articles, other relevant regulations and statutes, and summaries of relevant cases. Answer. The formal written statement by a defendant in a civil case that responds to a complaint. Arguendo.

What is the Bluebook?

Arguendo. For the sake of argument. Bluebook. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation is a book published by Harvard Law Review. The book sets forth the abbreviations and rules of citation for legal materials.

What is a bona fide purchaser?

Bona fide. Good faith (e.g., a bona fide purchaser is an individual who purchases in good faith for value). Caveat emptor.

What is the purpose of the code?

Statutes and regulations are initially published chronologically as they’re enacted. The code organizes the statutes and regulations by subject (e.g., Title 26 of the United States Code covers taxation).

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What are the oracles against the nations?

There are some passages of Scripture which might be used to object to the position I have articulated so far. First, there are the oracles against the nations in the Old Testament prophets, in which the prophets denounce the wickedness of other nations and declare that God’s judgment will come upon them. Does this not show that there must be some universal moral law that all nations should be expected to follow, in addition to the particular law which God has given His covenant people? The problem with the argument is that virtually all Old Testament scholars agree that the prophets never delivered these oracles to the nations they were criticizing. Rather, the audience of these oracles against the nations was Israel. The purpose of the oracles against the nations, then, was not to tell other nations, “You should know better”; it was to tell Israel, “Even though these other enemy nations have harmed or threatened you, I will protect you and save you from them.” But even if the oracles against the nations do hold enemy nations to certain moral standards, this would not prove that there is a universal Natural Law; it would just show that God is holding these nations accountable to particular moral truths that they themselves recognize as being true.

What do Christians know about God?

Christians know what the will of God is. They know what is morally right and wrong. They know this because God has revealed this to His covenant people in His word, the Scriptures, and ultimately in His Word, Jesus Christ. But what about those who do not know God in this way? Is there still a set of moral standards we can expect them to adhere to, even apart from repentance, faith, and membership in the Church? One popular Christian answer to this question has been to posit the existence of a Natural Law. [1]#N#This should not be confused with the scientific “laws of nature,” which provide a descriptive account of the natural world. In contrast, Natural Law in this context refers to a prescriptive … Continue reading

What is natural law?

In contrast, Natural Law in this context refers to a prescriptive law providing standards for ethical action.

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What are the characteristics of natural law?

The natural law is knowable by human reason but people read nature differently. 2. Traditional natural law theory only picks out positive traits of human nature: desire to know truth, to develop as healthy beings, to choose the good. Not all traits of our nature are good though. 3.

What is natural law?

The natural law is the moral law written into nature. Click again to see term ??. Tap again to see term ??. Natural law theory. Click card to see definition ??. Tap card to see definition ??. a theory of ethics that holds that there are moral laws found in nature and discernable by the use of reason.

What does Aquinas say about nature?

they tell us how nature behaves. Aquinas. held that the natural law is part of the divine law or plan for the universe. "natural law shares in the eternal law". we ought to perserve our being and our health by avoiding undue risks and by doing what will make us health.

Is freedom of speech a natural right?

Theorists rely on notions about human nature for what is essential as a basis for determining what should be considered a basis natural right. -If speaking one’s mind is an essential requirement to fulfill one’s nature, then freedom of speech should be considered a natural right.

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Who developed the natural law?

The Stoics further developed the doctrine and first used the term natural law. Stoicism flourished in Athens in the third century B.C.E. and later in the Roman Empire in such great figures as Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and Cicero.

Who first identified the natural law with the good?

Let’s pursue this second alternative. The History of Natural Law Ethics. The genesis of natural law ethics is in the writings of Aristotle, who first identified the natural with the good.

What are the options if the standard of morality is independent of the gods?

Two options present themselves if the standard of morality is independent of the gods. First, the standard for morality may lie beyond our comprehension, forcing us to rely on authority, revelation, or tradition to explain morality. Going this route ends philosophical ethics.

What are the virtues of a person?

The person of good character exhibits moral virtues such as temperance, courage, and justice, and intellectual virtues like wisdom and prudence. A life full of virtue is a good, happy, and fulfilling life.

What is a good life?

A good life consists in the acquisition, over the course a lifetime, of all the real (natural) goods. These include external and bodily goods such as food, clothing, shelter, health, vitality, and vigor, and, “goods of the soul” like love, friendship, knowledge, courage, justice, honor, and skill.

What are some examples of real goods?

Food, clothing, and shelter are examples of real goods. Apparent goods satisfy acquired wants, and are called good because we desire them. Shrimp, designer clothes, and mansions are apparent goods. A good life consists in the acquisition, over the course a lifetime, of all the real (natural) goods.

What does the philosopher say about all things aim at?

All things “aim at some good, ” he says at the beginning of his treatise on ethics, “and for this reason the good has rightly been declared that at which all things aim.”. For individuals, ethics is a study of the goal, end or purpose of human life.

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What is natural law theory?

‘Natural law theory’ is a label that has been applied to theories of ethics, theories of politics, theories of civil law, and theories of religious morality. We will be concerned only with natural law theories of ethics: while such views arguably have some interesting implications for law, politics, …

When a view ceases to be a natural law theory, is it a nonparadigmatic one?

There is of course no clear answer to the question of when a view ceases to be a natural law theory, though a nonparadigmatic one, and becomes no natural law theory at all. 2. Theoretical Options for Natural Law Theorists.

What is the thesis of Aquinas’s natural law?

When we focus on the recipient of the natural law, that is, us human beings, the thesis of Aquinas’s natural law theory that comes to the fore is that the natural law constitutes the basic principles of practical rationality for human beings, and has this status by nature (ST IaIIae 94, 2). The notion that the natural law constitutes the basic principles of practical rationality implies, for Aquinas, both that the precepts of the natural law are universally binding by nature (ST IaIIae 94, 4) and that the precepts of the natural law are universally knowable by nature (ST IaIIae 94, 4; 94, 6).

Why are good and goods important?

The good and goods provide reasons for us rational beings to act, to pursue the good and these particular goods. As good is what is perfective of us given the natures that we have (ST Ia 5, 1), the good and these various goods have their status as such naturally.

What is Aquinas’ view on killing innocents?

On Aquinas’s view, killing of the innocent is always wrong, as is lying, adultery, sodomy, and blasphemy; and that they are always wrong is a matter of natural law. (These are only examples, not an exhaustive list of absolutely forbidden actions.)

What is Aquinas’s thought?

Aquinas’s thoughts are along the following lines: first, there are certain ways of acting in response to the basic human goods that are intrinsically flawed; and second, for an act to be right, or reasonable, is for it to be an act that is in no way intrinsically flawed (ST IaIIae 18, 1).

What is the eternal law?

The eternal law, for Aquinas, is that rational plan by which all creation is ordered (ST IaIIae 91, 1); the natural law is the way that the human being “participates” in the eternal law (ST IaIIae 91, 2).

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What are some examples of natural law?

Examples of Natural Law In Economics 1 Early economists of the medieval period, including the aforementioned Aquinas as well as the Scholastic monks of the School of Salamanca, heavily emphasized natural law as an aspect of economics in their theories of the just price of an economic good. 2 John Locke based his theories related to economics on a version of natural law, arguing that people have a natural right to claim unowned resources and land as private property, thereby transforming them into economic goods by mixing them with their labor. 3 Adam Smith (1723–1790) is renowned as the father of modern economics. In Smith’s first major treatise, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, he described a "system of natural liberty" as being the matrix of true wealth. Many of Smith’s ideas are still taught today, including his three natural laws of economics: 1) The Law of Self Interest—People work for their own good. 2) The Law of Competition—Competition forces people to make a better product. 3) The Law of Supply and Demand—Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy.

What did Aquinas think of the eternal law?

Aquinas thought eternal law to be that rational plan by which all creation is ordered, and natural law is the way that human beings participate in the eternal law . He further posited that the fundamental principle of natural law is that we should do good and avoid evil.

What did St Thomas Aquinas believe about natural law?

Thomas Aquinas (1224/25–1274 CE), natural law and religion were inextricably connected. He believed that natural law "participates" in the divine "eternal" law. Aquinas thought eternal law to be that rational plan by which all creation is ordered, and natural law is the way that human beings participate in the eternal law.

Why are natural laws considered ethical?

Because natural law as an ethical theory can be understood to be an extension of scientific and rational inquiry into how the world works, the laws of economics can be understood as natural laws of how economies “should” operate.

Why should the precepts of natural law be constant throughout time and across the globe?

Theoretically, the precepts of natural law should be constant throughout time and across the globe because natural law is based on human nature, not on culture or customs. When a child tearfully exclaims , “It’s not fair [that]…".

What is natural law vs positive law?

Natural Law vs. Positive Law. The theory of natural law believes that our civil laws should be based on morality, ethics, and what is inherently correct. This is in contrast to what is called "positive law" or "man-made law," which is defined by statute and common law and may or may not reflect the natural law.

What is the meaning of "There is a’something’ which is directing the universe, and which appears

There is a ‘something’ which is directing the universe, and which appears to me as a law urging me to do right.”. ( Mere Christianity, pg. 16–33) Philosophers of natural law often do not explicitly concern themselves with economic matters; likewise, economists systematically refrain from making explicit moral value judgments.

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