Children’s Internet Protection Act
What is the children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA)?
The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) is federal law that mandates the use of Internet filters and other measures to protect children from explicit and inappropriate content. Congress enacted CIPA in 2001 to protect minors from offensive Internet content accessible through publicly funded organizations, such as schools and libraries.
What does CIPA stand for?
Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) CIPA imposes certain requirements on schools or libraries that receive discounts for Internet access or internal connections through the E-rate program – a program that makes certain communications services and products more affordable for eligible schools and libraries.
What is CIPA E-Rate?
Techopedia explains Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) E-rate is a federal program that provides Internet service discounts to CIPA-compliant schools and libraries. Per CIPA, funded organizations must adopt Internet monitoring systems and adhere to formal Internet safety documentation and reporting requirements.
What is the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA)?
The tool with which the proper protection of classified information may be ensured in indicted cases is the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). See Title 18, U.S.C. App III.
What are the requirements for CIPA?
Schools and libraries subject to CIPA are required to adopt and implement an Internet safety policy addressing: 1 Access by minors to inappropriate matter on the Internet; 2 The safety and security of minors when using electronic mail, chat rooms and other forms of direct electronic communications; 3 Unauthorized access, including so-called “hacking,” and other unlawful activities by minors online; 4 Unauthorized disclosure, use, and dissemination of personal information regarding minors; and 5 Measures restricting minors’ access to materials harmful to them.
What is CIPA in schools?
CIPA imposes certain requirements on schools or libraries that receive discounts for Internet access or internal connections through the E-rate program – a program that makes certain communications services and products more affordable for eligible schools and libraries. In early 2001, the FCC issued rules implementing CIPA …
How to find out about CIPA?
You can find out more about CIPA or apply for E-rate funding by contacting the Universal Service Administrative Company’s (USAC) Schools and Libraries Division (SLD). SLD also operates a client service bureau to answer questions at 1-888-203-8100 or via email through the SLD website.
Does CIPA require a discount?
What CIPA requires. Schools and libraries subject to CIPA may not receive the discounts offered by the E-rate program unless they certify that they have an Internet safety policy that includes technology protection measures. The protection measures must block or filter Internet access to pictures that are: (a) obscene; (b) child pornography;
Where to file a complaint with the FCC?
Visit our Consumer Complaint Center at consumercomplaints.fcc.gov to file a complaint or tell us your story.
Does CIPA apply to schools?
CIPA does not apply to schools and libraries receiving discounts only for telecommunications service only; An authorized person may disable the blocking or filtering measure during use by an adult to enable access for bona fide research or other lawful purposes.
What is CIPA Section 3?
CIPA Section 3 requires the court, upon the request of the government, to issue an order "to protect against the disclosure of any classified information disclosed by the United States to any defendant in any criminal case.".
What is the linchpin of CIPA?
The linchpin of CIPA is section 5 (a), which requires a defendant who reasonably intends to disclose (or cause the disclosure of) classified information to provide timely pretrial written notice of his intention to the Court and the Government.
What is the tool with which the proper protection of classified information may be ensured in indicted cases?
The tool with which the proper protection of classified information may be ensured in indicted cases is the Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA). See Title 18, U.S.C. App III. CIPA is a procedural statute; it neither adds to nor detracts from the substantive rights of the defendant or the discoery obligations of the government.
What is section 4 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure?
Like Rule 16 (d) (1) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, section 4 provides that the Government may demonstrate that the use of such alternatives is warranted in an in camera, ex parte submission to the court.
Does CIPA change the evidentiary rules?
CIPA does not change the "generally applicable evidentiary rules of admissibility," United States v.
Does CIPA change the rules of admissibility?
CIPA does not change the "generally applicable evidentiary rules of admissibility," United States v. Wilson, supra 750 F.2d at 9, but rather alters the timing of rulings as to admissibility to require them to be made before the trial. Accord, United States v. Smith, supra, 780 F.2d at 1106.
Why do courts have pretrial hearings?
Upon request by the government, the court is required to hold a pretrial evidentiary hearing “to make all determinations concerning the use, relevance, or admissibility of classified information that would otherwise be made during the trial or pretrial proceeding.”.
What is common law evidentiary privilege?
This common law evidentiary privilege allows the head of a relevant government agency to prevent discovery of certain information in civil trials by showing a “reasonable danger” that disclosure will impair national security.
What is a pretrial notice?
Under Section 5, a defendant is required to provide notice to both the court and the government of any classified information that he “reasonably expects to disclose . . . in connection with any trial or pretrial proceeding involving the criminal prosecution of such defendant.”.
What is the purpose of CIPA?
First, a defendant is required to provide pretrial notice of any intended use of classified information and the government may require the court to hold a pretrial hearing to determine its admissibility.
What is Section 4?
Section 4 allows the government, “upon a sufficient showing,” to either delete certain classified items from a discovery request or, if disclosure is required, provide adequate unclassified summaries or substitutions. Importantly, the government may (and always does) make its showing in an ex parte and in camera hearing. Courts have rejected challenges to this practice on the grounds that it would defeat the purpose of such a hearing if defense counsel were permitted to learn about the potentially excluded information.
What power does the government have to withhold information ordinarily provided at discovery?
There are two competing theories from which this power comes: the state secrets privilege and the informant’s privilege.
Why did Congress enact CIPA?
First, Congress enacted CIPA in part because it believed that the state secrets privilege could not apply in criminal trials. And this makes sense.
What is e-rate in education?
E-rate is a federal program that provides Internet service discounts to CIPA-compliant schools and libraries. Per CIPA, funded organizations must adopt Internet monitoring systems and adhere to formal Internet safety documentation and reporting requirements.
What does CIPA mean?
What Does Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) Mean? The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) is federal law that mandates the use of Internet filters and other measures to protect children from explicit and inappropriate content.
What is CIPA regulation?
CIPA regulations issued by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) are as follows: Funded institutions must provide suitable and effective Internet safety policies. Unsafe content, such as child pornography or other potentially disturbing images, must be blocked.
When was CIPA enacted?
Congress enacted CIPA in 2001 to protect minors from offensive Internet content accessible through publicly funded organizations, such as schools and libraries. Public administrators, including teachers and librarians, are responsible for overseeing and ensuring CIPA adherence. Advertisement.
Why is CIPA unconstitutional?
CIPA is riddled with constitutional problems. It violates the First Amendment because it prevents citizens from communicating and accessing constitutionally protected speech, imposes a prior restraint on speech , …
What is the Children’s Internet Protection Act?
The Children’s Internet Protection Act, known as "CIPA," requires libraries that participate in certain federal programs to install "technology protection measures" on all of their Internet access terminals, regardless of whether federal programs paid for the terminals or Internet connections. The law defines such measures as "a specific technology …
Why was the censorship law passed?
Congress approved the censorship law even after its own 18-member panel set up to study ways to protect children online rejected the idea because of the risk that "protected, harmless, or innocent speech would be accidentally or inappropriately blocked.".
Is blocking a website erratic?
Web site blocking is erratic and ineffective. Even the makers of the blocking programs touted by the law’s proponents do not claim to block only material that is "obscene, child pornography," or "harmful to minors," the kind of websites the law targets.
Is the censorship of speech online unconstitutional?
In a trial that ended on April 4, the American Civil Liberties Union argued that a federal law that forces libraries to censor constitutionally protected speech online is unconstitutional and should be thrown out. [See ACLU Pretrial Brief ]
What is CIPAA?
The Malaysian government came out with an Act in 2012 known as the Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication act, 2012 (CIPAA) which was enforced in April 2014. This Act is drafted to provide speedy, timely and cost-effective dispute resolution mechanism for payment disputes in the construction industry.
How CIPAA will help resolve cashflow issues arising from payment disputes faced by contractors?
Through CIPAA, quick relief of cashflow is provided to contractors whilst more substantive issues of dispute may be resolved subsequently vide arbitration or litigation . The Act introduces statutory adjudication as a quick process to mitigate payment disputes between employers and contractors, as well as between contractors and sub-contractors.
What is the scope of CIPAA?
The Act applies equally to the government of Malaysia as well as private players. The adjudication under CIPAA can only be made for disputes relating to payment for work done, services rendered or materials supplied under the terms of a written construction contract.
Why is CIPAA important in Malaysia?
The Government of Malaysia realised the cashflow issues affecting contractors who had difficulty to resolve payment disputes. These disputes have to be quickly resolved in a cost-effective manner to ensure the smooth execution of the construction projects. Therefore, CIPAA was brought into play.
Why is CIPAA important?
CIPAA helps alleviate cash flow issues faced by many contracting parties who are unpaid as it is quick and cost-effective.
What is CIPAA in adjudication?
CIPAA clearly sets out the applicability and non-applicability of payment disputes for adjudication.
How long does it take to get a speedy decision?
Speedy: Adjudication Decision will be obtained within 106 working days.
What is the difference between anhydrosis and anhydrosis?
When the medical team observes unusually calm behavior in the face of pain, this can prompt an evaluation for sensory neuropathy. Anhydrosis (Lack of Sweating): Hydrosis means sweating. Anhydrosis means lack of sweating.
What is CIPA in 2020?
on April 16, 2020. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhydrosis (CIPA) is a rare hereditary disease that causes affected individuals to be unable to feel pain and unable to sweat (anhydrosis). It is also called hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV). This name is very descriptive because it defines several important …
Why is sensory neuropathy so descriptive?
This name is very descriptive because it defines several important characteristics of the disease. The condition is hereditary, meaning that it runs in families. Sensory neuropathy means that it is a nerve disease that specifically affects the nerves that control sensation.
What is the gene for CIPA?
There is a known genetic abnormality that identifies CIPA, and it is called the human TRKA (NTRKI) gene located on chromosome 1 (1q21-q22). 3 ? A genetic DNA test can identify an abnormality of this gene, confirming the diagnosis of CIPA.
Why does sweat help with CIPA?
Children (and adults) with CIPA suffer consequences of anhydrosis, such as excessively high fevers, because they lack the ‘cooling off’ protection that sweating can provide. 2 ?.
What is the gene responsible for CIPA?
The abnormal gene responsible for CIPA, human TRKA (NTRK1), is a gene that directs the body to develop mature nerves. It specifically promotes nerve growth by encoding a receptor called tyrosine kinase (RTK,), which is autophosphorylated in response to nerve growth factor (NGF).
What are the symptoms of CIPA?
Symptoms. CIPA disease is present at birth and makes people unable to sense pain or temperature and unable to sweat. 1 ? The symptoms become apparent during childhood and the disease is typically diagnosed during childhood. Lack of Pain: Most people who have CIPA do not complain of lack of pain or lack of sweat.