Who developed the natural law?
The Stoics further developed the doctrine and first used the term natural law. Stoicism flourished in Athens in the third century B.C.E. and later in the Roman Empire in such great figures as Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, and Cicero.
Who first identified the natural law with the good?
Let’s pursue this second alternative. The History of Natural Law Ethics. The genesis of natural law ethics is in the writings of Aristotle, who first identified the natural with the good.
What are the options if the standard of morality is independent of the gods?
Two options present themselves if the standard of morality is independent of the gods. First, the standard for morality may lie beyond our comprehension, forcing us to rely on authority, revelation, or tradition to explain morality. Going this route ends philosophical ethics.
What are the virtues of a person?
The person of good character exhibits moral virtues such as temperance, courage, and justice, and intellectual virtues like wisdom and prudence. A life full of virtue is a good, happy, and fulfilling life.
What is a good life?
A good life consists in the acquisition, over the course a lifetime, of all the real (natural) goods. These include external and bodily goods such as food, clothing, shelter, health, vitality, and vigor, and, “goods of the soul” like love, friendship, knowledge, courage, justice, honor, and skill.
What are some examples of real goods?
Food, clothing, and shelter are examples of real goods. Apparent goods satisfy acquired wants, and are called good because we desire them. Shrimp, designer clothes, and mansions are apparent goods. A good life consists in the acquisition, over the course a lifetime, of all the real (natural) goods.
What does the philosopher say about all things aim at?
All things “aim at some good, ” he says at the beginning of his treatise on ethics, “and for this reason the good has rightly been declared that at which all things aim.”. For individuals, ethics is a study of the goal, end or purpose of human life.